In such a situation when revolutionary struggles are advancing rapidly and when the ruling classes are making frantic efforts to suppress them, the revisionists and neo-revisionists have come forward to serve as the lackeys of imperialism and domestic reaction. By presenting the so-called ‘United Front’ governments as “organs of struggle,” by raising the slogan of “providing relief to the people,” they are trying to create illusions among the people in order to blunt their revolutionary consciousness and divert them from the path of revolutionary struggle. These ‘United Front’ governments are in essence the answer of the reactionary ruling classes to the challenge thrown out by the people. The neo-revisionists have been shouting that “time is not yet ripe for revolution,” “the people are not yet prepared for it” and that “the slogan of armed guerrilla struggle is an adventurist slogan.” There is no doubt now that these lackeys of foreign and domestic reaction are only trying their best to dampen the revolutionary spirit of our toiling people in order to save their masters from the fiery wrath of the people.
The history of the Communist Party of India is the history of struggle between the line of class struggle and the line of class collaboration and reachery, between the proletarian revolutionary ranks and the bourgeois reactionary leadership. An appraisal of party history will show that the leadership has always acted as conscious traitors to the revolutionary cause of our people. It will also show that the revolutionary ranks failed to overthrow the treacherous leadership earlier because of their inability to make a concrete analysis of the classes in Indian society and of their role in the Indian revolution.
With the great victory of the Anti-Fascist War, in which the Soviet people led by Stalin, played the most outstanding role, and the glorious victory of the Chinese people, led by Comrade Mao Tse-tung, over Japanese imperialism, the fascist imperialist powers met with their doom, thus severely weakening imperialism as a whole. The world-shaking victory of the great Chinese Revolution under the wise leadership of Comrade Mao Tse-tung breached the imperialist front in the East and the world balance of forces underwent a change. It is during the Anti-Japanese War of Resistance that Comrade Mao Tse-tung’s theory of People’s War was fully developed : it charted a new path — the path that all the people of colonial and semi-colonial countries like India must pursue to liberate themselves from the yoke of imperialism and domestic reaction. A storm of revolutionary struggles raged over various countries of Asia where the people followed the road indicated by Chairman Mao, the road of People’s War. The pent-up wrath of the Indian people found expression in a widespread, heroic revolt against the rule of the imperialists. Led by the working class, India’s peasantry took to the path of armed struggle ; the peasants of Punnapra-Vayalar put up resistance against the reactionary armed forces; the peasants of Telengana rose arms in hand against the rule of the feudal lords; the peasants of Bengal waged the Tebhaga struggle against feudal exploitation. There was an upsurge of working class struggle all over the country. The revolt spread even among the ranks of the police, the army and the navy. But the revisionist leadership acted as the lackey of the imperialists and the domestic reactionaries and betrayed these great struggles. Alarmed at the revolutionary upsurge, imperialism struck a deal with the Congress that represented comprador capital and feudalism in India. The country was partitioned. The direct rule of the imperialists changed into their indirect rule. Together with all other political parties of India, the revisionist leadership committed this treachery against the people.
The Second Congress of the Party witnessed the revolt of the ranks against the sordid betrayal. The Ranadive clique utilized this revolt to seize the leadership of the Party. The Secretariat of the Andhra Provincial Committee, which was then leading the Telengana struggle, correctly pointed out that the Indian revolution could win victory only by following the road blazed by China—the road of People’s War. The Ranadive clique opposed this correct formulation of the Andhra Secretariat and adopted the Trotskyite theory of accomplishing both the democratic revolution and the socialist revolution at one stroke. Thus, this clique diverted the attention of the Party ranks from the agrarian revolution—the basic task of the democratic revolution. Sectarianism led the Party members into adventurist actions. Though the Ranadive clique followed this wrong and suicidal policy, the peasant revolutionaries of Telengana did not deviate from the path of struggle. They carried this struggle forward by adopting the tactics of guerrilla war. The Ranadive clique formally abandoned the sectarian line when it was faced with a revolt of the ranks. The just intervention of the international leadership helped this process but the same treacherous policy was restored with the adoption of the Programme of 1951.