II. The History of Philosophy

We have already discussed how the fundamental question of philosophy did arise. But development of philosophy presupposes a situation in which a section of population is freed from necessary labour and has enough time to devote on art, science and philosophy etc. In the later part of primitive communism, with

III. Sources of Marxist Philosophy

Contrary to metaphysics and mechanical materialism, it was Hegel's (1770-1831) dialectical system which developed dialectics to a higher stage. For the first time Hegel presented nature, history and intellectual field as a continuous process and it was his greatest contribution. According to Hegelian dialectics the whole world is in ceaseless

IV. Unity and Struggle of Opposites

Lenin, while pointing out weaknesses in the dialectical method adopted by Plekhanov, emphasised that the law of unity of opposites is the essence of dialectics. “Dialectics in proper sense is the study of contradiction in the very essence of objects.” Later on, Mao Zedong in his brilliant essay. 'On contradiction'

V. The Materiality of the World

1. Lenin said, “Development (or motion) is struggle of opposites.” According to materialist outlook, “Motion is the mode of existence of matter.” Motion in cosmic space, mechanical motion of smaller masses on the various celestial bodies, the vibration of molecules as heat or as electrical or magnetic currents, chemical decomposition

VI. Historical Materialism

Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels applied dialectical method in studying history and analysed man's social life with materialist outlook, thereby giving birth to historical materialism. We will now discuss some of the salient features of historical materialism. 1. Contrary to idealism, historical materialism searches the cause of social development not in


Marxist philosophy of dialectical materialism has two outstanding characteristics. One is its class nature : it openly avows that it is in the service of proletariat. The other is its practicality. It emphasises the dependence of theory on practice, emphasises that theory is based on practice and in turn, serves


INDIAN PHILOSOPHY As observed beforehand, the emergence and development of philosophy, its progress and stagnation, all depends upon the development of productive forces in the society, upon the development of men's production struggle, class struggle and scientific experiments. Indian society passed through primitive communism and slavery and after stepping in the


Agnosticism : The agnostic's conception of nation is materialistic throughout. The entire world is, according to them, governed by law, and absolutely excludes the intervention of action from without. But, they add, we have no means either of ascertaining or of disproving the existence of some supreme being beyond the


Introduction We are passing through a period of great transition. On the one hand, the economy is in chaos, political system is breaking down and social fabric is disintegrating, and on the other hand masses are in motion, rising mass struggles for economic justice, political democracy and social harmony are generating

1. In Quest of Philosophy

We are living in a topsy-turvy world. An unprecedented turmoil has gripped us economically, politically, socially and morally. Galloping inflation, mounting unemployment, political instability, earth-shaking revolutions and people's heroic struggles as well as various brands of 'socialism' contradicting each other, increasing atrocities committed by the state, widespread bloodshed, degradation of